Songs of The Hobbit: What is Gained and Lost in Film Adaptations of J. R. R. Tolkien’s Work

19 December 2017

Songs of The Hobbit: What is Gained and Lost in Film Adaptations of J. R. R. Tolkien’s Work

J. R. R. Tolkien has created one of the most immersive literary fantasy worlds of all time with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings trilogy series, largely through the heavy use of song integrated into his characters’ daily lives. The fact that all of his characters sing and are still meant to be taken seriously sets his novels apart from many others in the epic fantasy genre. He utilizes his characters’ songs to enrich their backgrounds, emotions, and desires. It is this unconventional method of storytelling that I believe strengthens his fantasy world and develops his characters in a way that is subtle but thorough. I would like to analyze and compare the content, syntax, rhyme, and purpose of Tolkien’s songs in The Hobbit, focusing on dwarves, elves, and goblins in particular, and how they are able to create and shape the atmosphere of the story.

It can be difficult to imagine songs within a novel since the reader only has the words to grasp onto, more like a poem rather than a more captivating melody or rhythm. There have been several film adaptations of Tolkien’s works that feature his lyrics set to song, which might give off an impression closer to the one he intended in the first place. Although, some of these films include little to none of Tolkien’s original songs, which significantly changes the overall vibe he sets in the novel. As it is, several of the songs that do make it into the films become nondiegetic, or outside of the film narrative and the characters’ consciousness, by featuring a narrator-like voiceover sing while the characters are unaware of the music, which again, is not the tone Tolkien initially sets by allowing his characters to sing themselves. There is something to be said for nondiegetic music, as it can truly create an atmosphere for a scene and teach its audience how to feel, which is an added element to the novel medium. As Isabella van Elferen states in her article, “[n]ondiegetic music provides emotional characterizations of onscreen persons, places or situations: through relatively simple means such as the difference between consonance and dissonance, for instance, music can help audiences distinguish the good guys from the bad guys.”1 So, though something may be lost by obscuring the singers of Tolkien’s words, something may be gained in their adaptation into a new mode. I would like to analyze the adaptations of Tolkien’s songs in film from a musical perspective as well, focusing on both Howard Shore’s music in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey of 2012 (and the lack of any songs sung by characters in the other two films of Peter Jackson’s trilogy), and Maury Paws’ music in the animated adaptation of The Hobbit of 1977, which has a much greater representation of Tolkien’s original songs.

Dwarves

With the exception of their first song, “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” the dwarves typically sing ballads or epic tales in song form. Their songs are a method of storytelling, especially in the case of “Far over the misty mountains cold,” which sets up the entire novel.

Far over the misty mountains cold

To dungeons deep and caverns old

We must away ere break of day

To seek the pale enchanted gold.2

This song uses a bit of a complex rhyme scheme, AABBA, which remains perfectly regular throughout. This alludes to some intelligence and civility in the dwarves despite their gruff appearance. The language used is also quite formal and always consists of complete sentences, detailing mysterious but straightforward images, which also supports this civilized manner. Their songs are typically reminiscent of the past or predictive of the future, and thus far less present than other species’ songs. “Far over the misty mountains cold,” “The wind was on the withered heath,” and “Under the mountain dark and tall” are all in the same style of either predictive epic poems or celebratory jovial tunes.

Alternatively, “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” has a different tone to it. It is sung as the dwarves joke and tease Bilbo at their first meeting after dinner at Bag-End.

Chip the glasses and crack the plates!

Blunt the knives and bend the forks!

That’s what Bilbo Baggins hates-

Smash the bottles and burn the corks!3

It is still quite formal and uses complete sentences, so it doesn’t completely deviate from the dwarfish syntax, but it does sound significantly different in content and style. The exclamation points set a new tone of excitement, as do the shorter, simpler phrases that form compound sentences rather than more drawn-out clauses. The song is very playful and makes fun of Bilbo, but in a goodnatured way. This can be perceived because it is sung in the first place — if the dwarves truly wanted to get on Bilbo’s bad side, they would not sing, but would shout or tease in a more spiteful way. The song gives off the impression that the dwarves are enjoying themselves and laughing along with their teasing, not seriously insulting their host. “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” demonstrates another side of the dwarves’ character — one that is not quite so stoically serious. In both methods of dwarf song, the lyrics are very open and honest about their feelings and intentions and act as a method of storytelling that details their life achievements and ambitions. Their songs are meant to awe, share their history, and remain quite factual, but one gets the impression that they are hoping to impress.

Out of the somewhat scarce representation of Tolkien’s songs in film adaptations of his work, the dwarves’ songs are the most present in film. In the 1977 film by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass, The Hobbit, “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” is featured and remains quite faithful to the novel’s representation. The tune created is very upbeat and catchy which keeps the song from getting malicious due to the lyrics. Instead, it sounds playful and teases Bilbo all in good fun. Each stanza of the song begins in a minor key, which achieves a mischievous tone, but resolves in a major key which leaves the listener comforted that the sentiment is good natured. The rhyme scheme is simplified a bit so the lyrics are slightly rearranged, but remain authentic, which keeps quite close to Tolkien’s original vision. The characters are shown acting in relation to the lyrics as they are sung as well, holding plates stacked high that totter on the edge of falling and cracking, which further integrates the song into the story. Contrastingly, the frame zooms in on the faces of the dwarves as the song plays to reveal that no one is actually singing; the vibe is as if they are, since the song describes the current scene and the characters are even acting out the lyrics, but the fact that they are not singing technically makes the song nondiegetic, which means that the characters are unaware of the music within the narrative of the film.4 I found this to be a very interesting choice on the film’s part — the accuracy of the portrayal of the song makes me wonder why the animated characters were not made to sing the lyrics. This final stretch of authenticity doesn’t seem like one that would the damage the integrity of the story world created in the film or make it too campy, but perhaps the directors and composer thought otherwise. Or perhaps this choice is more related to Van Elferen’s point that nondiegetic music has effects that are different from diegetic music, and the filmmakers wanted to focus on creating a certain atmosphere for the listener rather than the characters themselves.

Even more significant is the inclusion of “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” in Peter Jackson’s The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey of 2012, the first of three more recent film adaptations of Tolkien’s novel. The song begins as an instrumental without voice in a minor key which sets a tone of mystery, but once the lyrics are introduced, the melody changes and again, resolves in an upbeat major key. The section in major is reminiscent of a jig or dancing song which emphasizes its silliness while remaining rational within the film’s plot. The lyrics are kept intact once again except for the simplified rhyme scheme, the same technique used in the 1977 version. In Jackson’s version of the scene, Tolkien’s lyrics are worked into the dialogue when Bilbo says over the opening instrumental: “You’ll blunt them!” to which a dwarf answers: “Hear that lads? He says we’ll blunt the knives,” which then leads to the dwarves breaking into song on that very lyric. This dialogue begins a logical progression into song in this scene, which makes it very clearly diegetic because it makes total sense that the dwarves would playfully sing here within the narrative of the film. The dwarves also bang along to the beat and are shown playing instruments during this song as well, which overtly places it into the plot.5 The choice to include this song diegetically into the live action film is even more interesting when compared with the choice not to in the animated one. The song is one of only two in Peter Jackson’s entire film trilogy, so its unapologetic inclusion sets the tone for the work as a whole.

In The Hobbit of 1977, “Far over the misty mountains cold” is portrayed just a few moments after “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” which remains true to the quick change in mood that also appears in Tolkien’s novel. There is a very dissonant and mysterious chord played in the winds, which haven’t been heard in this scene yet, that signals a song change as well as a change in tone. The portrayal of this song has a simpler lyrical line — everyone sings in unison over a drone or single tone played by instruments — and is much slower in tempo. Tolkien’s exact lyrics and rhyme scheme are used, though only one verse is included when the song is much more extensive in the novel. It is sung in a very low bass register and in a minor key which sounds a bit sinister, reminiscent of the song’s content on “dungeons deep” and “caverns old.” The dwarves’ shadows are shown singing and playing instruments in this scene which confirms that this song is diegetic. In addition, Gandalf and Bilbo address the music and the power it holds in their discussion during this song when Gandalf says: “There’s a magic in that music” and Bilbo responds: “and it moves through me,” which demonstrates just how significant the music is to the characters.6 They go on to paraphrase Tolkien’s words at this moment in the novel that signal a change in Bilbo: “something Tookish woke up inside him, and he wished to go and see the great mountains, and hear the pine-trees and the waterfalls, and explore the caves, and wear a sword instead of a walking-stick.”7Far over the misty mountains cold” sparks a curiosity and adventurousness in Bilbo and is the reason that he changes his mind and embarks on his quest. Rankin and Bass’ portrayal of this pivotal moment remains very faithful to the original.

Far over the misty mountains cold” is also present in the 2012 film and is also quite similar to the 1977 rendition, perhaps because it too is quite reminiscent of Tolkien’s original scene. In Jackson’s version, there are no instruments, only humming to begin the song and then lyrics in unison and in harmony to follow. It is in a minor key again, very mysterious and almost menacing, but captivating to the listener. It is sung with very low bass voices, as well. The tune created in this film is one that is almost recognizable — like a folksong one feels one already knows, which coincides with the folklore of the content. Estelle R. Jorgensen notices this is Howard Shore’s music as well, commenting that “Shore’s musical scores help to highlight the mythic character of Tolkien’s narrative, … interrelate the experience of time—especially past and present—and evoke a sense of wonder and awe that otherwise may be forgotten in pervasively materialistic societies.”8 Jorgensen touches on a couple other points here that I had previously noticed about dwarf songs in particular as well: that they are centrally connected to time, specifically the past and the myth that it presents, and that the songs are meant to captivate the listener into a state of “wonder and awe.” Going by Jorgensen’s review, Shore is very successful in achieving Tolkien’s original aim with his dwarfish songs. The adaptation of the song is obviously diegetic within Jackson’s scene because the dwarves are clearly shown singing. Again, Bilbo is obviously captivated by their music, though in this version, he is hovering just out of the room, listening on the stairwell out of sight of the dwarves.9 In both the 1977 and 2012 versions of this meaningful song, the power of music is highlighted quite clearly as it changes Bilbo’s entire mental state, which sticks faithfully to the intentions of the novel.

Elves

In contrast, elf songs portray several differences between the species that Tolkien created. As Jorgensen points out in another article on Tolkien’s music, when they first appear, “the elves are singing their song of welcome to Bilbo on his return ‘as if they had not stopped,’ so constant and continuing is the role of singing in their lived experience.”10 To make music such a central part of life to an entire species adds to the whimsical yet complete and sensical world Tolkien has created, heavily based on songs, who sings them, and when they are sung. The elves are first introduced to Bilbo and the dwarves as voices singing in the forest before they are even seen, which emphasizes Jorgensen’s point and how important it is to their species. Their first song is a quizzical one, with a balance of whimsy and wisdom.

O! Where are you going,

With beards all a-wagging?

No knowing, no knowing

What brings Mister Baggins

And Balin and Dwalin

down into the valley

in June

ha! ha!11

Elf songs are largely cheerful, silly, and celebratory as opposed to the more ominous or folklike songs of the dwarves. This one has a simpler rhyme scheme, ABABCC, that is a lot more lenient and sometimes includes forced rhyme where words are made up to fit the rhyming pattern as in “tra-la-la-lally” to match “here down in the valley” earlier in this tune. This song includes present questions and observations about nature and people, which create a light, carefree tone. Laughing is also included in the text of the songs, (“ha! ha!”) which emphasizes this less serious method of song. Though the tone is carefree, it is not one of ignorance; in “O! What are you doing,” the elves seem to already know the dwarves as they can call them by name, “… Mister Baggins / And Balin and Dwalin,” which gives off the impression of great wisdom. This wisdom paired with silly singing makes for a species who are so confident in their abilities that they do not have to perform their prestige to others, but can be relaxed and playful. This expertise is shown in their other songs as well, such as “Roll — roll — roll — roll,” when the elves sing about where their barrels travel as they float downstream.

Down the swift dark stream you go

Back to lands you once did know!

Leave the halls and caverns deep,

Leave the northern mountains steep,

Where the forest wide and dim

Stoops in shadow grey and grim!12

This song is a bit less silly and shows the elves’ knowledge both of the land and of the fate of the dwarves in a more straightforward manner. They even include “caverns deep,” an allusion to the dwarves’ song, and emphasize that the dwarves leave it behind. Not only does this inclusion highlight the differences between the elves’ songs and the dwarves’, it shows that they are aware of what is taking place despite their playful tone. Jorgensen puts the astute air of the elf songs nicely: “[o]ne has the sense here, both narratively and poetically, of entering and leaving the story in the midst of something ongoing that stretches back to a distant past and forward to a time in the future.”13 The elves’ wisdom is hinted at here in a way that gives the readers the impression that they are only given a fraction of what there is to know about the elves’ knowledge. Though it is a bit more serious and logical than “O! What are you doing,” this song still includes exclamation points, which make it more informal and create an air of excitement. This balance demonstrates that the elves are not only wise, but friendly, positive creatures and their songs are meant to wish the best for the travelers.

The Hobbit of 1977 portrays “O! What are you doing” quite accurately. The lyrics are kept intact and even the “ha! ha!” is included which keeps the silly vibe, as well as the inclusion of the verse with Bilbo and the dwarves’ names, which gives the elves some amount of dignity. The tune is very jubilant in a major key and an unrushed tempo. It features multiple voices singing in unison reminiscent of a singalong. Just as the singing begins, Bilbo labels it as “Elvish singing,” “not a thing to miss,” yet there are never any elves shown actually singing. As the song concludes, Bilbo and the dwarves talk with Elrond, and when Elrond finally speaks, it is a bit jarring because his voice is lower and has a more serious tone than that of the singing elves just before him.14 This distinctly different voice doesn’t make sense if the singing is supposed to be within the narrative, which leads me to believe it is actually nondiegetic and acts as soundtrack music, similar to the film’s portrayal of “Chip the glasses and crack the plates!” The only flaw in this theory is the explicit statement by Bilbo that elves are singing. Perhaps the film is actually attempting to remain authentic to Tolkien’s novel where the elves are indeed heard “offscreen” before they are seen by the characters.

In the 1977 version of The Hobbit’s portrayal of “Roll — roll — roll — roll,” the same technique is used once again. The song is sung as if to set the scene for Bilbo and the dwarves to ride downstream in the barrels, but the elves faces are shown and they are not singing the lyrics, which makes it nondiegetic soundtrack music rather than part of the narrative. Though this representation may be strange, it is more than what is represented in Jackson’s The Hobbit trilogy series of the elf songs; none of Tolkien’s elf songs are ever included in his films at all. In fact, the portrayal of the elves is quite different from what is initially laid out by Tolkien and adapted by Rankin and Bass and Paws. This makes sense when keeping Jorgensen’s comment about how central music is to the elves’ lifestyle in mind. Without singing, they seem to be a much more serious, regal, and proud species which is confirmed by Jackson’s portrayal. There is a bit of a special circumstance however, as the three films of The Hobbit trilogy were actually made after Jackson’s The Lord of the Rings films where he had already established this portrayal of Tolkien’s elves. Yet, the elves also sing in The Lord of the Rings novels, so it is truly Jackson and others that worked on these first films that made the decision to cut songs from their character and thus change them from what Tolkien had presented.

Goblins

The goblins’ songs are perhaps the most distinctive of all, mostly because of their content, as in “Clap! Snap! the black crack!

Clap! Snap! the black crack!

Grip, grab! Pinch, nab!

And down down to Goblin-town

You go, my lad!15

All of their songs include violent content about killing and hurting others which is very unlike the songs of any other species in The Hobbit. They use quite a lot of onomatopoeia, crude language, and small words to get their point across in the most rudimentary way. Their rhyme scheme of AABBCCDD or couplets provides immediate gratification which gives off the impression of impatience and utter directness. The use of the lyric “my lad” is significant because this could be an affectionate term, but here I believe it is more patronizing. It portrays the goblins in a position of power over their prey and makes fun of their inferiority. Another song of theirs does this as well:

Fifteen birds in five fir-trees,

their feathers were fanned in a fiery breeze!

But, funny little bird, they had no wings!

O what shall we do with the funny little things?

Roast ‘em alive, or stew them in a pot;

fry them, boil them and eat them hot?16

This song has a nursery rhyme, singsong quality to it that displays the confidence of the goblins over the dwarves who have escaped to the trees. “[F]unny little things” has the same patronizing tone as “my lad,” as well. The use of the slang term “‘em” is also only used in the goblin songs which sets them apart as more primitive and less formal or polite than other species in Tolkien’s world. There is heavy use of exclamation points in goblin songs as well, which demonstrates their informality as well as their intention to startle or make an impact on the other characters. The goblin songs are meant to frighten and intimidate with curses and abuse, purely for their own amusement.

The portrayal of “Clap! Snap! the black crack!” in The Hobbit of 1977 is appropriately menacing for the dwarves as well as the listener. This song opens with music first and then lyrics which is a technique often used in musicals to ease the listener into a diegetic song so that there is not a stark contrast between spoken and musical lines. This is one way the film hints at the song being diegetic. The voices used sound gruff and violent which fit the content of the song, and sing in a low register, which matches the lyrics (“down, down.”) The lyrics are quite rearranged from Tolkien’s original song, but the content remains the same, with the important “my lad” still included. The song is in a minor key the whole time and includes an arresting rhythmic line that halts the beat during “You go, my lad!” which is effective in providing an unexpected jolt for the listener to match the terror of the characters. This is one of the only songs in the film with a heavy use of brass and drums, which provides a bolder statement and sounds harsh compared to the gentler winds and strings used in the majority of the other songs. Van Elferen notes that “[o]ften there is an emphasis on contrasts, such as for instance that between ethereal woodwinds signifying the idyllic qualities of the fantasy world on the one hand, and the rumbles of fast percussion stressing heavy beats and dissonant brass signifying the inevitable threat to that world on the other.”17 This is precisely true in Paws music in this film; he often uses “ethereal woodwinds” for the “good” characters and the heroes, largely Bilbo, and uses “the rumbles of fast percussion” and “dissonant brass” strictly for the goblins’ songs. In this way, Paws is able to extend Tolkien’s initial ideas about his characters without lyrics at all, but with music alone. Perhaps this is another reason why The Hobbit of 1977 is more focused on the atmospheric music rather than the characters’ relation to it. Yet again, though it is heavily hinted that this song is diegetic, the goblins are shown up close and their mouths are not moving, indicating that they are not actually singing.18 The question of whether the characters are aware of the music is never quite answered as in most of the songs of this film.

In The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey of 2012, there is a deleted scene that features a rendition of Tolkien’s “Clap! Snap! the black crack!” The scene begins with a line from the goblin king, “I feel a song coming on,” which pointedly places the song within the narrative of the film. This film’s portrayal of the song is distinctively gross and unpleasant. The singing is very distorted — it is not on pitch and there is blatant yelling, but it is still very much singing as the goblin king announces this himself and there is music and backup vocals. This version is in a minor key and has a heavy beat as well, reminiscent of dragging downward, again reflecting the content. Only some of the original lyrics are kept in this version; there is no “my lad” or any address of the dwarves at all, which makes it more creepy and less whimsical to me.19 I find it very interesting that this scene did not make the final cut of the film since it is quite central to Tolkien’s original characterization of the goblins. There are only two songs included in Jackson’s films after all, so several crucial storytelling songs have been cut. The inclusion of this song would admittedly have most likely changed the tone of the entire film as it would have gotten closer at Tolkien’s insistence that music be a fundamental part of his species’ lifestyles as well as play a large part in depicting who they are to the audience. Jackson definitely took a more serious approach with his film overall, so perhaps this song, with its almost campy amount of unpleasantness and creepiness, was not sober enough for the tone he set.

Both films and Tolkien’s novel go about the characterization of characters of different species in slightly different ways. This only reminds one that films are not meant, and more importantly, are definitely unable to produce an exact replica of a work of fiction. Details and subtleties must be sacrificed and the director, composer, and other members of the cast and crew will inevitably place their own ideals within their work alongside the ones of the author who inspired it. That being said, there are so many songs written into Tolkien’s original work that film adaptations could have easily been made into musicals. Rankin and Bass’ The Hobbit achieved a version of this by including the majority of the songs written in the novel, perhaps because animation better lends itself to a fantasy world where everyone sings. However, Jackson’s The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey as well as the next two films of the trilogy are the result of a conscious choice to change the vibe to one more serious than what Tolkien wrote by including just two of his original songs. Perhaps the 1977 version does a better job at authentically recreating the whimsy of Tolkien’s world, but in the 2012 version, all the songs that are sung are clearly diegetic — the audience sees the characters sing them — so by another definition, this is more authentic to what Tolkien had envisioned. Neither film could capture entirely Tolkien’s formal, diegetic, yet playful use of song that gives The Hobbit such a distinct charm that has drawn in readers for almost a century. However, they are able to bring his songs to life; lyrics are just one element of the complexity of music and alone, they are certainly lacking. Shore’s and Paws’ ability to bring emotions into Tolkien’s songs and tell a story with all of the elements that music provides brings his work to another dimension — one with which it is easier for a wider audience to connect.

 

Bibliography

Jorgensen, Estelle R. “Music, Myth, and Education: The Case of The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 44, no. 1 (2010): 44-57. doi:10.5406/jaesteduc.44.1.0044.

Jorgensen, Estelle R. “Myth, Song, and Music Education: The Case of Tolkien’s the ‘Lord of the Rings’ and Swann’s ‘The Road Goes Ever On’.” Journal of Aesthetic Education 40, no. 3 (2006): 1-21. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4140177.

The Hobbit, Directed by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass, (Topcraft Studios, Tokyo: Rankin/Bass Productions), 1977.

The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Directed by Peter Jackson, (Otango, New Zealand: New Line Cinema, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, WingNut Films), 2012.

Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, Rev. ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), 2002.

Van Elferen, Isabella. “Fantasy Music: Epic Soundtracks, Magical Instruments, Musical Metaphysics.” Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 24, no. 1 (87) (2013): 4-24. http:// www.jstor.org/stable/24352902.

  1. Van Elferen, Isabella. “Fantasy Music: Epic Soundtracks, Magical Instruments, Musical Metaphysics.” Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 24, no. 1 (87) (2013): 4-24. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24352902, 8.
  2. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, Rev. ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002), 44.
  3. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 42.
  4. The Hobbit, Directed by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass, (Topcraft Studios, Tokyo: Rankin/Bass Productions), 1977.
  5. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Directed by Peter Jackson, (Otango, New Zealand: New Line Cinema, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, WingNut Films), 2012.
  6. The Hobbit, Directed by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass.
  7. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 45.
  8. Jorgensen, Estelle R. “Music, Myth, and Education: The Case of The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 44, no. 1 (2010): 44-57. doi:10.5406/jaesteduc.44.1.0044, 44.
  9. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Directed by Peter Jackson.
  10. Jorgensen, Estelle R. “Myth, Song, and Music Education: The Case of Tolkien’s the ‘Lord of the Rings’ and Swann’s ‘The Road Goes Ever On’.” Journal of Aesthetic Education 40, no. 3 (2006): 1-21. http:// www.jstor.org/stable/4140177, 4.
  11. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 91.
  12. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 235.
  13. Jorgensen, Estelle R. “Myth, Song, and Music Education: The Case of Tolkien’s the ‘Lord of the Rings’ and Swann’s ‘The Road Goes Ever On’,” 4.
  14. The Hobbit, Directed by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass.
  15. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 107.
  16. Tolkien, J. R. R., The Annotated Hobbit, 151.
  17. Van Elferen, Isabella. “Fantasy Music: Epic Soundtracks, Magical Instruments, Musical Metaphysics,” 6.
  18. The Hobbit, Directed by Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass.
  19. The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Directed by Peter Jackson.

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